This review informs on current literature on patents for biomarkers for asthma from 2009 to 2011. Variable airflow obstruction in asthma is generally triggered by gene-environment interactions that can lead to key symptoms of cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing. The episodic and variable degrees of airway hyperresponsiveness arise from a variety of inflammatory pathways that can make diagnosis and management difficult. Standard pulmonary function tests used for the diagnosis of asthma may fail to predict individual responses to the standard bronchodilator and corticosteroid therapies. Phenotypic predispositions can alter the severity of the asthmatic condition and treatment response. Biomarkers from sputum, exhaled gases, exhaled breath condensates, urine, serum, and broncheolaveolar fluid lavage proteins are currently explored to provide objective metrics for identifying individuals at risk, provide therapy guidance, monitor disease progression and evaluate response to therapy, as a supplement to standard pulmonary function tests. Updates on the refinement of technologies, inherent limitations and benefits of these biomarkers are discussed to provide insights on how current understanding of pathologic mechanisms has been applied to provide information for addressing gaps in the diagnosis and management of asthma.
Keywords: Asthma, biomarkers, diagnosis, metabolites, proteins, small molecules, EXHALED BIOMARKERS, SERUM INFLAMMATORY BIOMARKERS, Mast Cell Stability, BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE PROTEINS
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