Iron is the most abundant chemical element on Earth but its most common oxidation state is Fe(III) which presents a very low solubility under physiological conditions. During evolution, micro-organisms have developed sound strategies to acquire iron from both the environment and superior organisms, including direct uptake of iron ions from exogenous iron/heme sources and the synthesis of specialized Fe(III) chelators called siderophores. The present review paper aims at presenting and discussing the latest achievements in siderophore isolation and production, as well as novel applications of these molecules in therapies against iron-related diseases and in vaccines, and their application as antimicrobial agents and biosensors.
Keywords: Antibacteria, antifungal, antimicrobial, biosensor, catecholate, chelation therapy, hydroxamate, iron chelation, iron homeostasis, iron overload, Neurodegenerative diseases, Pathogen competition, Pyoverdin, Siderophore, synthesis, vaccines
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