MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs, which posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression through mainly binding to 3' untranslated region of mRNA. Most microRNAs are evolutionally conserved cross species; whereas, novel microRNAs expressed in different organisms are also identified with next generation sequencing technology. MicroRNAs play crucial roles in development, stem cells self-renewal, apoptosis and cell cycle. Aberrant microRNA expression in cancer and other diseases has been extensively investigated; the specific microRNAs have been developed for cancer diagnosis, prediction of drug-response and therapeutic outcome. Given the roles of microRNAs in pathophysiological conditions, it is conceivable that development of “miR-drugs” with different strategies (miR mimics, anti-miR, small molecule inhibitors of specific miRs) provides great hope to fight against cancer in combination of conventional treatment. In this review, the course of microRNA research to understand cancer biology is briefly introduced, the translation of miRNA studies from bench to bedside, particularly, microRNA implication in cancer with patents for diagnosis, prognosis will be described; the current status and challenges of “miR-drugs” development will be discussed.
Keywords: microRNA, gene expression, patents, treatment, miR-drugs, miRNome, MicroRNAs Patents, Bench to Bedsides, Caenorhabditis elegan, hematopoietic malignancy, lymphocytic leukemia, solid tumors, MTg-AMO, MiR-21, ANP32A/ SMARCA4, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics
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