Since the pioneer experiments conducted by Friedrich Miescher in l861, extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of DNA handling. Today nucleic acids can be extracted from any type of biological material such as tissues, cells and viruses. Moreover, increasing knowledge of human genome is paving the way to an effective employment of pharmacogenomics and genetic-based predictive tests in medicine. In this context, the recovery of DNA from different sources of biological samples (e.g. archived formalin-fixed autopsy tissues, dried blood spots, frozen serum or plasma, long-term stored whole blood) is also an emerging field in genetic epidemiology studies. Thus, given the crucial role played by DNA in bio-medical research and in its related applications, here we review the main relevant issued patents and recently published advances in the field of DNA extraction and purification from human specimens.
Keywords: DNA extraction, PCR, whole blood, tissue, cytoplasmic compounds, Vacutainer tubes, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Ficoll Gradient, SDS Proteinase K, Phenol-Choloroform Method, Salting out Method, Matrix mill, Mitochondrial DNA, FBI DNA
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