Magnetic particles have attracted much attention for their versatile uses in biotechnology, especially in medical applications. The major advantage of magnetic particles is that they can be easily manipulated by magnetic forces. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize nano-sized biomagnetites, otherwise known as bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs) that are individually enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane. The mechanisms of BacMP synthesis have been analyzed by genomic, proteomic, and bioinformatic approaches. Based on those studies in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, functional nanomaterials have been designed and produced. Through genetic engineering, functional proteins such as enzymes, antibodies, and receptors have been successfully displayed on BacMPs. These functional BacMPs have been utilized in various biosensors and bio-separation processes. Here, recent papers and patents for bioengineering of BacMPs and their applications in biotechnology are reviewed. The elucidation of the mechanism of magnetic particle synthesis has provided a roadmap for the design of novel biomaterials that can play useful roles in multiple disciplinary fields.
Keywords: Magnetic particles, bacteria, gene fusion, display, anchor, protein engineering, biosensors, bio-separation, automated system, DNA, viruses, target molecules, magnetosomes, bacterial magnetic particles, iron oxide magnetite, lipid bilayer membrane, bioengineering, environmental inspections, homogeneous mixtures, column-purification, leukocytes, dextran-coated superparamagnetic, proteomic, bioinformatic, signal transduction pathway, phospholipids, amine groups, cross-linker reagent, reagents, streptavidin, Aminosilane, extraction, electrostatic interactions, cationic charge, adsorption/desorption, immunoglobulin G, luciferase fusion studies, cytotoxic effects, tetracycline, post-translational modification, immunoassays, Antibody-conjugated, target cells, peripheral blood, hematopoietic stem cells, IgG-binding, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, Toxicity factors, lipopolysaccharide, purification, phospholipid membrane, magnetosome membrane, thermostable enzyme, DNA polymerase, PPi, ATP, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, automated pipetter, magnetic flux density, spectrometer
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