DNA sequencing techniques witnessed fast development in the last decades, primarily driven by the Human Genome Project. Among the proposed new techniques, Nanopore was considered as a suitable candidate for the single DNA sequencing with ultrahigh speed and very low cost. Several fabrication and modification techniques have been developed to produce robust and well-defined nanopore devices. Many efforts have also been done to apply nanopore to analyze the properties of DNA molecules. By comparing with traditional sequencing techniques, nanopore has demonstrated its distinctive superiorities in main practical issues, such as sample preparation, sequencing speed, cost-effective and read-length. Although challenges still remain, recent researches in improving the capabilities of nanopore have shed a light to achieve its ultimate goal: Sequence individual DNA strand at single nucleotide level. This patent review briefly highlights recent developments and technological achievements for DNA analysis and sequencing at single molecule level, focusing on nanopore based methods.
Keywords: Nucleotide, ionic current, translocation, bio nanopore, solid-state nanopore, fluorescence, first-generation sequencing,
next-genteration sequencing, exonuclease, graphene nanopore.
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