Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials demonstrate good capabilities for photon-electricity conversion. Recently, they have attracted extensive attention because of the increased energy consumption of the emerging economies. OPV materials show many advantages including low-cost, light-weight, easy-processing, and good flexibility. OPV materials are usually synthesized from conjugated polymers that have high quantum efficiency, wide absorption spectra, and high carrier mobility. In this review, patents on the mechanism of photovoltaic conversion and the advancement of OPV research are reviewed. In addition, future research directions and possible breakthroughs in this field are addressed.