Chemokines are small chemoattractant cytokines involved in homeostatic and inflammatory immune cell migration. These small proteins have multiple functional properties that extend beyond their most recognized role in controlling cellular migration. The complex immunobiology of chemokines, coupled with the use of subsets of chemokine receptors as HIV-1 and SIV entry co-receptors, suggests that these immunomodulators could play important roles in the pathogenesis associated with infection by HIV-1 or SIV. This review provides an overview of the effects of pathogenic infection on chemokine expression in the SIV/macaque model system, and outlines potential mechanisms by which changes in these expression profiles could contribute to development of disease. Key challenges faced in studying chemokine function in vivo and new opportunities for further study and development of therapeutic interventions are discussed. Continued growth in our understanding of the effects of pathogenic SIV infection on chemokine expression and function and the continuing development of chemokine receptor targeted therapeutics will provide the tools and the systems necessary for future studies of the roles of chemokines in HIV-1 pathogenesis.
Keywords: SIV, HIV-1, chemokine, pathogenesis, Treg
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