Chemical biology (CB) is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology involving the application of chemical techniques and tools, often natural products or small chemical compounds produced through synthetic chemistry, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. CB is providing new tools for deciphering protein modification and activity. Designer small molecules as probes of protein and cellular function are becoming the method of choice for careful profiling and development of biological processes in areas such as drug discovery, neurochemistry and molecular genetics. CB studies consists of three methodologies, chemical libraries with small molecules, high-throughput screening, and computational database. Combinatorial synthetic methods combined with high-throughput screening provided large numbers of potential lead compounds. CB reach is expanding into a vide range of fields and there is need to introduce CB to professional chemists working in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, agrochemical and other relevant sectors. Inorganic/organometallic/bioinorganic chemistry-chemical biology interface, biomolecular interactions (protein-protein, protein-carbohydrate), fluorescent quantum dots, biocongugation techniques, boronic acid-based chemosensors, click chemistry and artificial enzymes are described. CB aspects in aging, microfluidics, neurodegenerative diseases, human immunodeficiency virus as well as PROteolysis TArgeting Chimeric moleculeS (PROTACS) are reported. Research on the structural and energetic factors that distinguish specific protein interfaces should be strengthened. Exploration of protein networks should be actively pursued. Chemical biology new technologies may accelerate the discovery of still elusive cures to neurodegenerative diseases.