The surface chemistry and pore structure of porous carbons determine its application. The surface chemistry could be modified by various methods, such as, acid treatment, oxidization, ammonization, plasma, microwave treatment, and so on. In this paper, the modification methods were illustrated and compared, some new methods also reviewed. The surface chemical functional groups were determined by the treatment methods, the amminization could increase its basic property while the oxidization commonly improved its acids. In the end, the commonly characterization methods were also mentioned. Some interesting patents are also discussed in this article.