Year 2007 is the golden anniversary for the discovery of the sodium- and potassium adenosine triphosphatase, i.e., Na+, K+-ATPase, or Na+-pump by Jens Skou who shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery. Prior to identification of the enzymatic basis of Na+ and K+ active transport by Skou, the physiological and pharmacological manifestations of such a system had long been evident. Since 1957, there has been a dramatic increase in the knowledge of the physical, chemical, and kinetic properties of the pump and recognition of its basis for a wide range of physiological, pathological, and pharmacological aspects of the cardiovascular system. The Na+-pump has recently been identified as a key partner in a wide array of cell signaling pathways related to hypertrophy and expression of its marker genes. Taken together, these facts make it evident that the pump is a prime target for pharmacological interventions of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophy, hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), and preeclampsia. This review couples basic attributes of the Na+-pump with pathophysiological etiologies and clinical management of cardiovascular related maladies, and also discusses related patents.