The global prevalence of persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the lack of a highly effective and well-tolerated antiviral therapy have spurred intensive efforts to discover and develop novel anti-HCV therapy in the pharmaceutical industry. HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the centerpiece for viral replication, constitutes a valid target for drug discovery. Compared to the host RNA and DNA polymerases, NS5B RdRp has distinct subcellular localization at the interface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and cytoplasm, a novel catalytic mechanism and many unique structural features, all of which make it an attractive target for developing effective anti-HCV therapeutics. High genetic variation among the major HCV genotypes commands that any efficacious NS5B inhibitors have to be broadly active against NS5Bs from various genotypes. Rapid viral replication and its inherent genetic diversity will certainly culminate drug resistance to any NS5B inhibitors. Therefore, iterative drug design and combination therapies of drugs that intervene with different steps in the HCV replicative cycle are needed to combat the viral infection. Many classes of nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of NS5B RdRp have been identified and appeared in literatures and patent applications. These progresses hold a considerable promise to the development of novel, specific and highly effective therapeutics to achieve sustained response and ultimately the eradication of HCV infection.