Pulmonary complications of AIDS are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIVinfected individuals, and are often direct indicators of enhanced progression to an AIDS-defining illness. HIV can be detected in the lung during asymptomatic disease, as well as during the advanced stages of AIDS. With prolonged survival of HIV-infected patients, non-infectious pulmonary complications are becoming more common and can lead to respiratory compromise and failure. The pathogenesis of non-infectious pulmonary complications, following HIV infection is not fully understood, and the role that HIV-induced immunosuppression plays in the development of these complications is not known. In this review, we will discuss non-infectious pulmonary complications of HIV infection, focusing on HIV-associated malignancies of the lung, inflammatory disorders, pulmonary hypertension and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of these diseases. The possible role that HIV plays in the pathogenesis of these pulmonary disorders is also addressed.