Microdialysis has been developed during the last 25 years by several authors primarily to study brain function and changes in levels of endogenous compounds such as neurotransmitters or metabolites. The development of microdialysis for the purpose of measuring drugs was initiated during the late eighties. This technique provides a means of continuous plasma sampling without repeated blood sampling and the applicability to the study of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in experimental animals and human. Also, the microdialysis technique allows the study of plasma protein binding and the saturation of protein binding. The implantation of the microdialysis probe in other tissues and organs, like central nervous system, adipose tissue and heart, allows the study of drug distribution. On the other hand, the measurement of endogenous substances using the microdialysis technique permits the study of the effect of drugs on neurotransmission and metabolism. Moreover, as this technique allows the simultaneous determination of different physiological parameters such as blood pressure, locomotor and convulsive activity, it is a suitable tool for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies of drugs and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. Lastly, the reverse microdialysis is a powerful technique for the study of local actions of drugs in different tissues such as specific brain nuclei, myocardium, liver or skeletal muscle. So, this article reviewed the vast applications of the microdialysis technique for the study of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs.