The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) isotypes (PPARα, β / δ and γ) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. During the last decade, they have been identified as anti-inflammatory transcription factors. Part of this regulation antiinflammatory is mediated through negative interference between PPARs and other nuclear factors such as NFκB, AP-1 and C / EBP, which regulate innate as well as adaptative immunity. In addition, the PPARs control the functions of macrophages, B cells and T cells. In this review, we summarise the pathways through which the PPARs control inflammatory responses. We also discuss the potential utilisation of PPAR specific ligands in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases.