Prostaglandin-H synthase exists in two isoforms, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2. PGHS-1 is present and is constitutively expressed in most cells and tissues, whereas PGHS-2 is mainly thought to mediate inflammation. Selective prostaglandin-H synthase-2 (or cyclooxygenase-2) inhibitors have been shown to be potent antiinflammatory agents with fewer side effects than currently marketed nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This review addresses the main classes of the selective PGHS-2 inhibitors whose selectivity is documented by supporting PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 enzyme data. In addition, we also describe our experience in design, synthesis and pharmacological in vivo evaluation of new 1,2-benzodioxole derivatives as candidate of the selective PGHS-2 inhibitors, with special attention to molecular dynamics simulations of these derivatives attached to the active site of PGHS-2.