The growth and maintenance of tissue is impossible without the formation, growth and remodeling of functional vascular networks. The understanding of mechanisms of vessel development becomes increasingly important in the successful treatment of many vascular diseases. Angiogenesis and arteriogenesis play an important role in these processes. Whether angiogenesis or arteriogenesis predominate may depend on several factors: the pre-existing collateral vessel network, the type and location of occlusion and the different developmental origin of arteries. Further investigation of signaling pathways within vascular cells may lead to better understanding of the role of angiogenic factors in angiogenesis and / or arteriogenesis. This may allow for better control of each of these processes for the development of efficient therapy. Often, the treatment of vascular disorders using the administration of single angiogenic factor does not achieve the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed, which may include the use of combined gene therapy, including site-specific angiogenic factors optimized not only for various vascular diseases but also for different blood vessels regarding the developmental origin of vascular tree.