Snake venom disintegrins represent a family of RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) or KGD (Lys-Gly-Asp)-containing proteins which have been reported to be unique and potentially useful tools not only for investigating integrin-ligand interactions, but also for the development of anti-thrombotic agents in terms of their anti-platelet activities. Snake venom proteins containing a disintegrin-like domain represent another super-family of proteins in which many of them have been demonstrated to have similar ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion as the disintegrins. This super-family includes a large number of snake venom metalloproteinases and disintegrin related, RGD-containing snake venom proteins (disintegrin-like proteins) such as dendroaspin. Recently, a family of homologues of the snake venom metalloproteinases have been found in a wide variety of mammalian tissues as well as in other eukaryotic organisms termed ADAM (a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase) proteins. ADAMs are members of the metazincins that also include the related matrix metalloprotease (MMPs). Some of ADAM proteins have now shown to interact with integrins, and the disintegrin-like domain may be crucial part in their function as proteases. A description of structureactivity relationships of snake venom proteins containing a disintegrin-like domain is outlined in this review, along with reports of the modulation of protein activity by recombinant mutation. Comparison is also made of the structural and functional features of the metalloproteinases in snakes compared with those from other species. The review is intended to provide insights in which may assist the development of new therapeutic approaches.
Keywords: rgd-containing protein, svmp, disintegrin, integrin, platelet aggregation, cell adhesion, adams, adamts
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport