Gallstone disease in the Western world has an estimated prevalence of 10-15% and more than 75% are cholesterol-enriched gallstones. Defective gallbladder motility has been identified as an important pathogenic factor for cholesterol gallstone disease. Various agents may enhance or impair postprandial gallbladder motility, and their effects on interdigestive gallbladder and intestinal motility should also be taken into account. Patients in high-risk situations for gallstone disease, and those chronically treated with drugs inhibiting gallbladder motility (e.g. somatostatin analogues) may benefit from improving gallbladder motility with prokinetic agents. Whether such a strategy can really prevent gallstone formation is still unknown, long-term studies are lacking so far. The efficacy of bile acid therapy with UDCA for gallstone dissolution or for prevention in high risk patients is limited and hampered by high recurrence rates. The efficacy of UDCA in prevention of colics or gallstone related complications in symptomatic patients with gallbladder stones with contraindications for operation or on the waiting list should be explored further, since several retrospective studies showed favourable outcomes with this strategy.