Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies and developing countries. The ability to investigate the complete proteome provides a critical tool toward elucidating the complex and multifactorial basis of cardiovascular biology, especially disease processes. In recent years the proteome (and secretome) of the most relevant cellular elements (myocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, foam cells, circulating monocytes, platelets) of the cardiovascular system has begun to be depicted with the construction of two dimensional gel electrophoresis maps and databases. The development of differential proteomics allows examination of global alterations in protein expression in the cardiovascular diseases and identifies new potential proteins implicated in the genesis of myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Moreover, different strategies have been used to discover novel potential biomarkers that could be related with cardiovascular risk. The multi-factorial nature of cardiovascular diseases necessitates the use of biomarkers for early detection, for monitoring the response to therapy and to predict clinical outcome. In this review we summarize the current status of different proteomic technologies and recent findings that can help to understand the mechanisms implicated in the cardiovascular diseases. The application of proteomics to cardiovascular disease holds great promise and offer exciting advances toward predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine.
Keywords: Proteomics, heart, atherosclerosis, hypertrophy, hypertension, atherome plaque, 2-DE, MS
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