A growing array of synthetic bone regeneration scaffolds has been used or investigated over the last century. These scaffolds aim to provide a three dimensional substrate for bone cells to populate on and function appropriately. To serve this function, these scaffolds should be biocompatible and biodegradable at a rate commensurate with bone remodelling. Their mechanical properties should also be similar to those of the bone regeneration site. In this review, the main families of synthetic bone scaffolds were taxonomised and expounded. The main focus of this paper will be on the basic sciences principles and properties of clinical available as well as experimental synthetic bone scaffolds. Special emphasis was put on scaffolds developed over the last ten years.
Keywords: Bone regeneration, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity, scaffold, tissue engineering, cartilage repair, OSTEOARTHRITIS, EMBRYOLOGY OF CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
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