There is significant potential for the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells in regenerating musckuloskeletal tissues. The sources of these stem cells discussed in this review are bone marrow, blood, adipose tissue, synovium, periosteum & cartilage. Adult mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow origin are the cells which are heavily investigated in many studies and have been shown capable of producing a variety of connective tissues especially cartilage and bone. It has recently been suggested that bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells originate from microvascular pericytes, and, indeed, many of the tissues from which stem cells have been isolated have good vascularisation and they may give a varied source of cells for future treatments. Clinical trials have shown that these cells are able to be successfully used to regenerate tissues with good clinical outcome. Other sources are showing promise, however, is yet to be brought to the clinical level in humans.
Keywords: Adipose tissue, blood, bone marrow, chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, scaffold, synovium, Musculoskeletal Applications, Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bone
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