The genus Chaetomium fungi are considered to be a rich source of novel and bioactive secondary metabolites of great importance. Up till now, a variety of more than 200 secondary metabolites belonging to diverse structural types of chaetoglobosins, epipolythiodioxopiperazines, azaphilones, xanthones, anthraquinones, chromones, depsidones, terpenoids, and steroids have been discovered. Most of these fungal metabolites exhibited antitumor, cytotoxic, antimalarial, enzyme inhibitory, antibiotic, and other activities. This review covers the extraction, structure elucidation, structural diversity, and biological activities of natural products isolated from about 30 fungi associated with marine- and terrestrial- origins, and highlights some bioactive compounds as well as their mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships.
Keywords: Alkaloids, Bioactivities, Chaetomium, mycotoxins, natural products, polyketides, Sephadex, epipolythiodioxopiperazines, terpenoids, Chaetoglobosins, subaffine
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