Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) resulting from ischemic or toxic insults remains a major health care problem because of its grave prognosis and the limited effectiveness of available treatment modalities. Current treatment options for ARF are limited to supportive measures and preventive strategies, none of which have been definitively shown to alter mortality.
Aim: To assess the ability of human umbilical cord blood CD34+ (HUCB CD34+) cells and mononuclear (HUCB MNC) cells to improve renal function of nephrotoxic kidney.
Methods: ARF was induced in 30 rats by glycerol. After 24 hours, ARF was confirmed by increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum urea and creatinine levels. The rats were divided into 3 groups, group one included 10 rats treated with HUCB CD34+ cells, group two included 10 rats treated with HUCB MNC and group three included 10 rats treated with normal saline. Five rats were included in the study as a normal control group. Serial measurement of BUN, serum urea and creatinine levels were done every three days throughout the study. To proof homing of HUCB CD34+ into renal tissue, Y chromosome detection in renal tissue was carried out using Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.
Results: Four days after the therapy, the renal function of CD34+ and MNC treated rats improved in comparison to saline treated rats. After 2 weeks of therapy and at the end of the study (28 days), ANOVA test revealed that, there was significant difference between the four studied groups (P=.000). Y chromosomes were detected in kidneys of CD34+ treated rats and MNC treated rats.
Conclusion: HUCB CD34+ cells and HUCB MNC improve renal function of nephrotoxic kidney with superiority to the HUCB MNC.