The subventricular zone (SVZ), lining the lateral ventricular system, is the largest germinal region in mammals. In there, neural stem cells express markers related to astroglial lineage that give rise to new neurons and oligodendrocytes in vivo. In the adult human brain, in vitro evidence has also shown that astrocytic cells isolated from the SVZ can generate new neurons and oligodendrocytes. These proliferative cells are strongly controlled by a number of signals and molecules that modulate, activate or repress the cell division, renewal, proliferation and fate of neural stem cells. In this review, we summarize the cellular composition of the adult human SVZ (hSVZ) and discuss the increasing evidence showing that some trophic modulators strongly control the function of neural stem cells in the SVZ.
Keywords: Subventricular zone, Neural stem cell, Human, Neurodegenerative, Astrocyte, Glia, Growth factor, Subependymal zone, GFAP, Doublecortin, Multiple sclerosis, Neurogenesis, Hippocampus, Neuroblast, Rostral migratory stream, brain tumor stem cell, NG2, Ependyma, Stem cell, dentate gyrus, subgranular zone, cytokine, PSA-NCAM, Ki67, Interleukin
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