Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Function: Therapeutic Interventions

Author(s): Dimitris Tousoulis, Alexandros Briasoulis, Nikolaos Papageorgiou, Costas Tsioufis, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Kostas Toutouzas, Christodoulos Stefanadis

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Cardiovascular Drug Discovery
Continued as Recent Advances in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery

Volume 6 , Issue 2 , 2011


Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, or chronic smoking, stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular wall. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the coronary and peripheral circulation have important prognostic implications for subsequent cardiovascular events. The pathophysiologic causes of oxidative stress are likely to involve changes in a number of different enzyme systems. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by various oxidase enzymes, including nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, xanthine oxidase, uncoupled endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenase, glucose oxidase, and lipooxygenase, and mitochondrial electron transport. Decreased NO production due to changes in the expression and activity of eNOS and increased degradation of NO, by reaction with superoxide account for the reduction in endothelium- dependent vascular relaxation. Recently, a variety of antioxidants have been extensively studied in clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. In small clinical studies both vitamins C and E may improve endothelial function in high-risk patients. However, larger interventional trials have been controversial, suggesting potential harm in certain high-risk populations. Antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications exhibit well-documented antioxidant effects and improve endothelial function. However, the discussion of recent patents with the novel antioxidant strategies are required to clarify the role of antioxidant intervention in vascular diseases.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, patents, VASCULAR ROS, eNOs Uncoupling, NADH/NADPH Oxidase, Cyclopentenone Prostaglandins, Annexin A5 Analogues, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, Phenolic Antioxidants

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Article Details

Year: 2011
Page: [103 - 114]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/157489011795933819
Price: $65

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