PET imaging agents such as Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) allow detection of fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) in vivo. In addition to quantification of Aβ deposition in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease, PiB has also increased our understanding of Aβ deposition in older adults without cognitive impairment. In vivo Aβ deposition has been studied in relation to genotype, structural and functional brain changes, as well as alterations in biomarker levels. To date, several studies have reported changes in Aβ burden over time. This, together with investigation of the relationship between Aβ deposition and cognition, sets the stage for elucidation of the temporal sequence of the neurobiological events leading to cognitive decline. Furthermore, correlation of Aβ levels detected by PiB PET and those obtained from biopsy or postmortem specimens will allow more rigorous quantitative interpretation of PiB PET data in relation to neuropathological evaluation. Since the first human study in 2004, in vivo amyloid imaging has led to advances in our understanding of the role of Aβ deposition in human aging and cognitive decline, as well as provided new tools for patient selection and therapeutic monitoring in clinical trials.
Keywords: PiB, amyloid, aging, MCI, AD, cognition, MRI, FDG, pathology, human, brain, APOE E4 allele
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