The tetrapyrrolic uroporphyrinogen III is the common precursor of heme, chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls, vitamin B12 and related porphyrinoids. Heme is a prosthetic group of many proteins such as myoglobin and hemoglobin, and enzymes such as cytochrome P450 and peroxidase. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are the basic components involved in electron and energy transfer in photosynthesis. Cobalamine is a prosthetic group of many enzymes such as RNA reductase and methyl transferase and is involved in various rearrangement reactions. The isolation and syntheses of heme, chlorophylls, bacteriochlorophylls, cobalamines and related porphyrinoids in milder conditions including ionic liquids have been discussed. Various reactions of metalloporphyrinoid enzymes such as oxidation, reduction, dehalogenation, carbon-carbon, carbon-hetero bond formation and polymerization have been mimicked by metalloporphyrinoids in ionic liquids under different reaction conditions. The non-covalent interactions of porphyrinoids in ionic liquids in biological processes, supramolecular chemistry, photodynamic therapy and newer materials have been reviewed. The impact of ionic liquids on agriculture and environmental science has also been surveyed.
Keywords: Ionic liquids, metalloporphyrinoids, biomimetic reactions, supramolecular chemistry, porphyrinoid enzymes, non-covalent interactions, synthesis, protein, enzymes, oxidation
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