The innate immune system plays an important role systemically and locally in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and anti-inflammatory drugs were developed by understanding mechanisms of the innate immune system and causative factors of infection and inflammatory diseases. Pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, and their downstream signals have great potential as targets of therapeutics because they are involved in numerous diseases. Furthermore, proteolytic systems such as autophagy and immunoproteasomes play important roles in the innate immune system, making them potential therapeutic targets also. By taking advantage of the immune system, humankind has made a great effort to develop new therapeutic and preventive medicines. Accordingly, we have reported several studies on the development of vaccines and adjuvants based on novel mechanistic strategies. Additionally, we have elucidated the mechanism underlying an interaction between innate immunity and the endocrine system. This review introduces the possible use of innate immune molecules for the development of immunomodulatory drugs and the involvement of the immune system in endocrine metabolic diseases to discuss future applications of innate immune molecules to therapeutics of various inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: Innate immunity, adjuvant, vaccine, dsDNA, thyroid, proteolytic systems, immunoproteasome, Toll-like receptors, imiquimod, oligodeoxynucleotide, carboxymethyl cellulose, Monophosphoryl lipid A, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor
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