The modern era of surgical palliation, perioperative strategies, and myocardial preservation has dramatically altered the long-term outcome for children with congenital heart disease. Even children surgically corrected for more complex heart disease are now surviving to ages where physical activity and sports participation are not only considered but encouraged by pediatric cardiologists secondary to the benefits of regular physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, basic cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to exercise performance are reviewed. In addition, the interaction of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems during exercise in children with simple and complex congenital heart disease is reviewed.
Keywords: Exercise physiology, congenital heart disease, paediatrics, oxygen consumption, pulmonary ventilation, Pathophysiology, cardiovascular, pulmonary mechanisms, myocardium, Blood Flow
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