In contrast to the adult population, many medicines used in children with asthma have been inadequately studied with the result that evidence for their usage is lacking. Short-acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids have been available for over 40 years and thankfully, evidence for their usage in children is now relatively good. This is not the case for long-acting bronchodilators, leukotriene receptor antagonists and omalizumab. This article discusses currently available evidence on all aspects of treatment relevant to children and offers comments on possible future trends. The development of national and international childrens research networks throughout Europe and beyond should enable robust studies to be undertaken to fill our evidence gap and improve control of asthma in all ages of children.