Extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF-EMR) is an omnipresent component of electricity, with a frequency of 3-30Hz, and wavelengths 3,450-5,996km long. We reviewed the scientific literature regarding pediatric health effects resulting from chronic exposure to ELF-EMR and compared these with the international safety standards. Articles published between 1980-2007 were identified using Medline, Cancerlite, Science Citation Index, and EMBASE. For the general population, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection considers chronic exposure to magnetic fields lower than 100μT to be safe. However, even 0.3-0.4μT has been associated with an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. Although there is no experimental model to test the effects of ELF-EMR on organic systems, the Precautionary Principle is fundamental to the protection of children who are exposed to residential radiation doses higher than 0.3μT.