Plasma glucose is continuously filtered through the glomerulus and then is reabsorbed via the transcellular transport system of proximal tubules in the kidney. The glucose reabsorption system in the kidney is mediated by sodiumdependent glucose cotransporters (SGLTs). Most of filtered glucose is reabsorbed by the low affinity, high capacity SGLT2 located in the proximal renal tubule. SGLT2 inhibitors, such as T-1095, enhance urinary glucose excretion and consequently lower blood glucose levels independent of insulin action. The principle behind SGLT inhibition involves the amelioration of diabetic conditions without increasing body weight and the risk of hypoglycemia. A number of SGLT2 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of diabetes. This review offers the summary of structure-activity relationships (SARs) and pharmacological profiles of T-1095 and diverse SGLT2 inhibitors.
Keywords: SGLT, anti-diabetic agent, urinary glucose excretion, diabetes mellitus, phlorizin, T-1095, remogliflozin etabonate, sergliflozin, dapagliflozin
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