The eye involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is particularly frequent and includes a number of annexes and anterior and/or posterior segment lesions. There is a high prevalence of transient visual mono- or binocular disturbances related to autoimmune-mediated inflammatory responses and ischemia. The posterior ocular pole is usually the most affected and the one with more severe functional damage. Particularly, the advanced chorioretinal and optic nerve involvement is associated with central nervous system involvement and may have important visual and vital prognostic implications. A new term, the so-called “APS chorioretinopathy”, is presented, as well as a clinical classification for this particular vaso-occlusive ocular disease. On the other hand, sensorineural hearing loss is the most common otological disorder in the APS and can be the first clinical manifestation of the syndrome.
Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome, antiphospholipid antibodies, ophthalmological manifestations, vaso-occlusive chorioretinopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, otological manifestations, sensorineural hearing loss
promotion: free to download
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport