It has been documented that there is a strong positive association between prepregnancy body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia. However, few papers have evaluated the role that additional anthropometric and body composition measurements may have in predicting preeclampsia risk. For the present review, studies were identified using MEDLINE Scientific Database. Large observational, case-control and cohort studies published between 1990 and 2008 were identified. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria, nine reporting that anthropometric and body composition measurements could be used to predict preeclampsia risk during pregnancy. Waist, waist to hip circumference and total body water content, in particular, appear to correlate with preeclampsia risk. Further observational studies, using gold standard technologies for measuring body composition now need to be undertaken to build upon these preliminary findings.