Objective: prevalence of obesity and associated diseases in women has increased rapidly in Mainland China. It is critical to identify nutrition risk factors in obesity prevention and control. Methods: This review analyzed nutrition risk factors relating to obesity epidemic in Chinese women by using data of The 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey (2002CNHS) and other publications. Results: high fat and unbalanced diet was noted. 22.7% of adult women were overweight and 7.6% were obese. The prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in adult women was 18.0%, 15.9%, 2.66%, and 11.4%, respectively. Chinese girls were in relatively lower prevalence of overweight and obesity than boys, in total, 3.9% of 7-17year girls were overweight and 1.7% were obese. But it was 6.6% and 3.4% in urban girls. The rapid increase of the prevalence is alarming. Urban women have higher risks than rural women. High fat and unbalanced diet, as well as sedentary lifestyle contributed to the obesity epidemic and the prevalent of non-communicable chronic diseases. Obesity prevention and control strategies and actions have progressed, but further evidence-based weight management programs both in individual and population are needed.