Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms determining the formation of various tissues and organs is one of the central problems of cell biology. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy was applied for the analysis of the metabolites produced at the various areas of the apical part of the onion Allium cepa roots. To this end, three samples were extracted from the root apex (the root cap, the meristem region and the cell elongation zone). These samples were noticeably different in the number of mitoses and the sets of metabolites. Furthermore, the complete stasis of the plant roots and tops growth was registered in heavy water. Comparison of the morphological and NMR data revealed their perfect agreement with the cellular processes occurring in the root apex. The root cap sample was characterized by the greatest mitotic activity reflected in the great variability of the chemical compounds extracted from this area, the high level of energy consumption, and the increased synthesis of the phosphocholines needed for the cell fission. Sample containing the cell elongation zone possessed the high sugar content, which is required for the cell-wall growth. Therefore, our data show that high-resolution NMR spectroscopy can be used for the identification of chemical compounds in the various regions of the onion root apical area.