Cancer chemotherapy is not free of undesirable side effects. With respect to the cardiovascular system, cardiotoxicity is a well-described and potentially lethal side effect of certain chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines. However, in the last few years, several clinical studies have taken into account the fact that some non-anthracycline chemotherapy treated-patients also have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular events. The exact mechanism of this toxicity is not known, and several possibilities, including vascular autonomic neuropathy and vascular damage, have been proposed. The aim of the present review was to collate information on the clinical and experimental evidence regarding vascular toxicity for each of the different groups of chemotherapeutic agents. The mechanisms proposed to underlie this toxicity are also discussed.