The large number of adverse health outcomes associated with advanced paternal age is not widely recognized by the pediatric community. An exploration of the clinical and public health implications of this issue is required so as to develop appropriate policies. Included in this review are the clinically relevant conditions and diseases currently known to be associated with increasing paternal age, including diminutions in child IQ and social function , increased rates of low birth weight, certain childhood cancers, autistic spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, achondroplasia, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN). Other conditions for which there may be increased rates, but for which the data are still inconclusive, also are discussed. As men delay childbearing in the developed world, there is a need for pediatricians to be aware of the potential consequences. This paper provides pediatricians with a reference for conditions in children that are related to advanced paternal age, assisting them in maintaining a high index of suspicion, and for use in responding to questions from parents about this issue.