Till date various plants extract have been studied to reduce the incidence of urolithiasis but the identification of naturally occurring calcium oxalate (CaOx) inhibitory biomolecules from plants was hampered in past by limitation in identification method. The present study is aimed at examining the efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi on CaOx crystallization in vitro and further by combining conventional biochemical methods with recent advances in mass spectrometry, a novel calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth inhibitor was purified from the seeds of Trachyspermum ammi. An anticalcifying protein from the seeds of Trachyspermum ammi was purified by three step purification scheme; ammonium sulphate fractionation, anion exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography based on its ability to inhibit calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. An anticalcifying protein having molecular weight 107 kDa and isolectric point 6.2 was isolated. Amino acid analysis of Trachyspermum ammi anticalcifying protein (TAP) showed abundant presence of acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of TAP showed similarities with an unnamed protein product of Vitis vinifera (CAO23876) after matching peptide mass fingerprints in MASCOT search engine. Two EF hand domains were identified in unnamed protein product of Vitis vinifera (CAO23876) by SMART normal module. Due to a significant similarity of TAP with unnamed protein product of Vitis vinifera, presence of two EF hand domains in TAP was anticipated, signifying its calcium binding properties which is a feature of most kidney stone inhibitory proteins.
Keywords: Calcium oxalate, Trachyspermum ammi, inhibitory protein, urolithiasis, anticalcifying
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