Th17 and Treg Cells, Two New Lymphocyte Subpopulations with a Key Role in the Immune Response Against Infection

Author(s): Rolando Vernal, Jose A. Garcia-Sanz

Journal Name: Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets
(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders)

Volume 8 , Issue 4 , 2008

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Abstract:

In addition to the T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 lymphocyte subsets, two new subpopulations Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells have recently been described. Th17 cells, which produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-17, are dependent on the transcription factor orphan nuclear receptor RORC2/RORγt and have been implicated in exacerbating the immune response to infections. Conversely, Treg cells, either thymus-derived or generated upon TCR activation of naïve T cells, express the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and have regulatory functions mediated through either direct cell-cell contact or immuno-suppressive cytokines, being able to suppress the activation of T, B and NK cells. Based on the current knowledge of Th17 and Treg cell functions, new therapeutic strategies start to emerge, involving anti-cytokine treatments targeting Th17 functions or cell-based treatments in which Treg cells are generated from T cells either through Foxp3 gene transfer onto T cells with known specificities or transferring specific TCR genes onto Treg cells.

Keywords: T lymphocytes, T cells, T cell subsets, helper T cells, Th17, RORC2, RORγt, regulatory T cells, Treg cells, Foxp3

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Article Details

VOLUME: 8
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2008
Page: [207 - 220]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/187152608786734197
Price: $65

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