Oxidative stress has been linked to the origin and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) oxidase is a multi-component, NADPH-dependent enzyme that generates superoxide anion in the presence of molecular oxygen. The enzyme has been identified and characterized in all 3 vascular wall cell types and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vascular wall. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation appears to suppress the sequence of cellular events that leads to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. The naturally occurring methoxyphenol apocynin has been found to inhibit NADPH oxidase upon activation by peroxidases (e.g. soybean peroxidase, myeloperoxidase) or ROS under mild reaction conditions. Upon peroxidase-catalyzed activation, the apocynin oxidation products act to block the assembly and activation of NADPH oxidase. Although the mechanism of inhibition of NADPH oxidase remains largely unknown, apocynins high effectiveness and low toxicity makes it a promising lead compound in the development of new therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) oxidase, apocynin, cardiovascular diseases
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