Recent advances in molecular biology have enhanced the understanding of the pathology of melanocytic lesions. Several targetable pathways, responsible for survival and apoptosis resistance in melanoma cells, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways. However, the therapeutic resistance of malignant melanoma remains the main limit that cast the poor prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Current advances in high-resolution genome-wide technologies, as well as gene-specific mutational analysis, in conjunction with genetic and phenotypic analyses, improved animal models, may ultimately help to better define the seminal molecular events contributing to disease pathogenesis and ultimately identify more effective therapeutic targets. The focus of this review is to summarize the emerging patents in the treatment and diagnosis of melanoma related to the latest genetic models and bio-molecular discoveries.