To date, vaccination is an active area of investigation for its application to a great variety of human diseases including infections and cancer. In particular, naked-DNA vaccination has arisen as effective strategy in the preventive medicine field with promising future prospects. The ability of plasmid DNA to activate the humoural and the cellular arms of the immune system against the encoded antigen have resulted in intensive study of new strategies aimed at increasing the DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Nevertheless, plasmid-based vaccines emerged as a safer and advantageous alternative with respect to viral vector vaccines. Recent advances in both the immunological and biotechnological research field made it possible to enhance significantly the DNA vaccine potency. Most of these approaches are based on both the discovery of novel delivery systems and the implementation of plasmid constructs, achieved through genetic engineering. In this review, we will describe some of the most relevant patents issued in the last ten years, supporting the progress made in naked-DNA vaccination against infectious diseases.
Keywords: DNA vaccines, human infectious diseases, gene therapy, naked DNA, delivery systems, adjuvant, plasmid vector
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