Liver X Receptor-α (LXRα, also known as NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, a superfamily which includes the more widely known glucocorticoid receptor, estrogen receptor, thyroid receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The LXRs are activated by physiologic sterol ligands (e.g., oxysterols) and by synthetic agonists. In recent years, our understanding of the importance of LXRs has expanded across several fields of (patho-) physiology. Perhaps best known from a sizeable literature as homeostatic ‘cholesterol sensors’ that drive transcriptional programs promoting cellular cholesterol efflux, ‘reverse cholesterol transport,’ and bile acid synthesis, more recent roles for LXRs in glucose homeostasis, atherosclerosis, and innate immunity have also been identified. These discoveries complement an emerging literature that continues to draw surprisingly intimate connections between host metabolism and host defense. The present review will discuss the roles of LXR in the signaling of metabolism and innate immunity, and the potential for synthetic LXR agonists as novel therapeutics in dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, disordered glucose metabolism, and inflammation.