Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is known to have a contradictory role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We assessed the relationship between TGF-β1, age and ultrasound parameters of the arterial wall in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and a control group (C group). In both groups age was significantly related to the diameter of brachial artery (BA), diameter of common carotid artery (CCA) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the near and far CCA wall. A correlation between TGF-β1 and age was not found. In C group, relationships between TGF-β1 and the diameter of BA at rest (r = - 0.47, p = 0.007), in the 60th sec (r = - 0.44, p = 0.01) and in the 90th sec of reactive hyperemia (r = - 0.45, p = 0.01) were observed. Similarly, TGF-β1 was related to CCA diameter (r = 0.56, p = 0.002). The correlations between TGF-β1 and CCA IMT of the near wall (r = 0.62, p = 0.007) and far wall (r = 0.55, p = 0.02) were seen in the C group. We suggest that these relationships reflect arterial remodeling.