Retinal Vein Occlusion (RVO) is the most common visually disabling disease affecting the retina after diabetic retinopathy. Although the disease entity has long been known, its management is still controversial. Macular edema is the main reason for decreased visual acuity in RVO. Recently the vitreous cavity has increasingly been used as a reservoir of drugs for the direct treatment of macular edema through intravitreal injection. The most widely injected drugs so far are triamcinolone acetonide and bevacizumab. This review evaluates new medical and surgical treatment modalities aimed at reducing macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), including intraocular injections of steroids and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, vitrectomy, sheathotomy. Controversies and future treatment options are also considered.
Keywords: Retina, central retinal vein, branch retinal vein, occlusion, secondary macular edema, surgical treatment, medical treatment, intravitreal injections
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