Recently considerable interests have been roused in nuclear reprogramming by somatic cell nuclear transfer using an egg cytoplasm and/or by other means, such as fusion, cell extracts treatment and genes transfections. However, the very mechanism of reprogramming still remains elusive. Epigenetic modifications, which play a significant role in normal mammalian development in vivo is also involved in the process of reprogramming in vitro. The latter shares some of the other features observed in nuclear reprogramming in vivo. In this review, we discuss the main epigenetic changes involved in nuclear reprogramming and currently available approaches to achieve nuclear reprogramming in vitro and its future prospects.
Keywords: Reprogramming, somatic cells, pluripotent, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), cell fusion, retroviral transduction
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