P-glycoprotein is considered one of the most important member of the rapidly growing superfamily of integral proteins known as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) which in human also include several other multidrug resistance membrane proteins (i.e., MRP), the product of the cystic fibrosis gene, the TAP-1 / TAP2 peptide transporters encoded by the major histocompatibility complex genes and the gene encoding for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) also known as MXR1 (mitoxantrone resistance protein). Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with distinct P-glycoprotein domains have been isolated and used to study the molecular organization and cellular functions of this ABC protein. MAbs have been used for multidrug resistance (mdr) gene cloning, delineation of the secondary and tertiary structure of P-glycoprotein and molecular analysis of the mechanisms involved in substrate recognition and transport. The immunodetection of the distinct products of the mdr gene family in normal and malignant cells and tissues has greatly contributed to the understanding of the physiological role of P-glycoprotein and its possible involvement in the refractory of tumors to chemotherapy. The present article deals with the immunological methods used for the structure-function studies of the P-glycoprotein. After introducing the basic structural features of this ABC transporter, the antibody based-approach is discussed with aiming to furnishing methodological perspectives for further investigations of the physiological role of P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance phenomenon.