Distamycin A as Stem of DNA Minor Groove Alkylating Agents

Author(s): Pier Giovanni Baraldi, Maria del Carmen Nunez, Antonio Espinosa, Romeo Romagnoli

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 4 , Issue 2 , 2004

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Abstract:

Analogues of naturally occurring antitumor agents, such as distamycin A, which bind in the minor groove of DNA, represent a new class of anticancer compounds currently under investigation. Distamycin A has driven researchers attention not only for their biological activity, but also for its non intercalative binding to the minor groove of doublestranded B-DNA, where it forms strong reversible complex preferentially at the nucleotide sequences consisting of 4-5 adjacent AT base pairs. The pyrrole-amide skeleton of distamycin A has been also used as DNA sequence selective vehicles for the delivery of alkylating functions to DNA targets, leading to a sharp increase of its cytotoxicity, in comparison to that, very weak, of distamycin itself. In the last few years, several hybrid compounds, in which known antitumor derivatives or simple active moieties of known antitumor agents have been tethered to distamycin frames, have been designed, synthesized and tested. Several efforts have been made to modify DNA sequence selectivity and stability of the distamycin and the structural modifications have been based on replacement of pyrrole by other heterocycles and / or benzoheterocycles obtaining a novel class of minor groove binding molecules called lexitropsins. The role of the amidino moiety, by means of the substitution with various groups, which includes ionizable, acid or basic, and non-ionizable groups, has been also studied. The synthesis of a hybrid deriving among the combination of the distamycin A and naturally occurring alkylating agent has been also reported. Several classes of distamycin derivatives that have been reported in the published literature have been described in this review article.

Keywords: antitumor agent, bromoacryloyl, benzoyl nitrogen mustard, heterocyclic analogues

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Article Details

VOLUME: 4
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2004
Page: [231 - 239]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1568026043451474
Price: $65

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